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Title: Modern Management of Risks at LNAPL Sites

Dates and Locations: June 19 and 20, 2018
Colorado State University
Lory Student Center
2545 Research Blvd.
Fort Collins, CO 80526

June 26 and 27, 2018
Harvard University
Harvard Lecture Hall
26 Oxford Street
Cambridge, MA 02138

Collaboration: Dakota Technologies, LLC
Vista Geosciences, LLC
Groundwater and Environmental Services, Inc.
In-Situ, Inc.


Instructors: • Tom Sale, PhD, Professor, Colorado State University

• Chuck Newell, PhD, PE, VP, Principal Engineer, GSI Environmental, Inc

Workshops Featuring: LNAPL Fundamentals
Modern Site Conceptual Models
Modern Tools for LNAPL Characterizations
Internet Based Monitoring

Continuing Education Information: 1.6 Continuing Education Units (CEUs)
(16.0 Professional Development Hours)
Continuing Education Units (CEUs) and a Course Completion Certificate will be administered by Colorado State University. Most state professional licensure programs accept CEUs for this course.

Pre-Approved for:
Massachusetts Licensed Site Professionals (Course No. 1624)
Connecticut Licensed Environmental Professionals (Course No. CTLEP-458)
NJ LSRP (Course No. 2018-08)
Delaware Professional Geologists
South Carolina Professional Geologists (Course No. SCPG-1953)
North Carolina Professional Geologists
Iowa Certified Ground Water Professionals

Who should attend: Professional ground-water scientists, engineers, project managers, compliance-program managers and remedial-design managers. Anyone who is vested in LNAPL SITES will benefit from this course.

How to Prepare: Be prepared to immediately dive into a series of lectures, workshops and self-tests that are designed to help empower you demystify LNAPL complexities and then identify and manage risks at LNAPL sites.

Bring a pen and a calculator and we will provide the rest to facilitate your participation during hands-on exercises and workshops.
Notice: Modern Management of Risk at LNAPL Sites Course is not affiliated with Harvard University, nor is Modern Management of Risk at LNAPL Sites Course a Harvard University program or activity.

Course Details


A revolution has occurred over the last decade with best practices for managing risks at LNAPL sites.

Ten years ago we were using the thickness of LNAPL in wells to measure remediation progress, we thought that LNAPL bodies only decayed very slowly, and didn't appreciate the importance of methanogenic reactions or understand how sheens and seeps work. Since then a body of work by top environmental researchers and practitioners, with contributions from both short course presenters, has revolutionized how we think about LNAPL sites and how we should control their risk.

This short course will describe these dramatic changes in the LNAPL world through thoughtfully-designed lectures, interactive question and answer sessions, illuminating in-class exercises, and a lively participant panel discussion.

The foundation of the course is the recent update of: "Managing Risk at LNAPL Sites, 2nd Edition" (Bulletin 18 from the American Petroleum Institute) by Dr. Tom Sale. For the field of remediation, the 2003 1st edition was a best seller. Fifteen years later, critical new knowledge has emerged offering the promise of better LNAPL solutions so that over 80 percent of the cited references in the 2nd edition are new and have been published since release of the 1st edition.

This course is designed to introduce participants to new strategies through new paradigms, emerging technologies, and more sustainable solutions for managing LNAPL sites.

Remarkable opportunities are open today to those versed in modern concepts and tools for LNAPL sites.

Conversely, little time is left for managing LNAPL sites per past practices.

Course Outline:

  • A History of LNAPLs - Context About How We Got to Where We Are Today
  • LNAPL Fundamentals
    • Multiple-Phase Flow
    • Natural Attenuation
    • Natural Source Zone Depletion

  • Modern Site Conceptual Models
    • Roles of Conceptual Models
    • Legacy Approaches
    • Soil and Groundwater Models
    • Groundwater and Surface Water Interface Models
    • 14-Compartment Model

  • Modern Tools for LNAPL Characterizations
    • Legacy Strategies and Approaches
    • Impact of New Technologies
    • The Role of Geologic Context and Field Information
    • Emerging Techniques and Technologies
    • Revolution of Cloud-Based Information

  • LNAPL Remediation Strategies
    • Historical Context
    • Active LNAPL Depletion
    • Sheens and Seeps
    • Natural Source Zone Depletion
    • Bioventing revisited
    • Benzene
    • Late stage chemical oxidation
    • Low T Thermal
    • Vapor Intrusion Emerging Changes

  • The Future - Internet Based Monitoring
  • Decision Guide Processes for Managing Risk
    • Impact of Site Conceptual Model
    • Resolving Objectives: Technical, Regulatory and Financial
    • Vision for Sustainability

  • Concluding Workshop
    • Participant Panel

Benefit from workshops that encourage thinking, creativity, technical mastery and managing LNAPL risk.


Workshop 1: Developing an LNAPL Site Conceptual Model: Assessing Risk, Tools for Characterization, and Remedies
Workshop 2: Exercise: LNAPL Presence, Duration and Extent Given Active Releases
Workshop 3: Exercise: List the Attributes of Early, Middle and Late Stages Sites
Workshop 4: Exercise: Recognizing and Managing Subsurface Uncertainties
Workshop 5: Tools and Strategies for Characterizing Subsurface Releases: Differing Site Stage
Workshop 6: Discussion: Primary Remedies for Subsurface Releases as a Function of Site Stage

Being current with best practices for managing risk at LNAPL sites is essential to sustainable careers



Seating is Limited. Do not wait to register.

Advanced registration is necessary for participation in this limited-enrollment short course. Pre-registration is required to reserve space and receive course materials. If you require special arrangements for diet, equipment, or handicap facilities, please indicate when registering for the course.

Participants receive 16.0 contact hours of instruction, Course Notebook, morning coffee break, lunch, and an afternoon break.

CEU Course Completion Certificate from Colorado State University Online Program.

The online registration allows registrants to add items to their course registration.

Item No 1:
Full Color Course Notebook (approx. 400 pages) for $89.00. Otherwise your course book is printed in black and white (it still looks great).


EVENT 1 - Fort Collins, Colorado
-Members - Register Now: $785.00
-Non-Members - Register Now: $885.00
-After 29 May 2018: $995.00

EVENT 2 - Boston, Massachusetts
-Members - Register Now: $785.00
-Non-Members - Register Now: $885.00
-After 5 June 2018: $995.00

Student discounts are available for students with full-time enrollment verification. Student please inquire to service@midwestgeo.com. Student discounts are subject to availability.

Cancellations may be made up to one week before the event, however, 35 percent of the course fee will be charged. No refunds. One substitute is allowed for each registrant who is unable to attend.

Modern Management of Risk at LNAPL Sites Course is not affiliated with Harvard University, nor is Modern Management of Risk at LNAPL Sites Course a Harvard University program or activity.

Technical Questions: For registration and technical questions about the course, contact Dan Kelleher at either 763.607.0092 or dan@midwestgeo.com


Tom Sale, PhD

Dr. Tom Sale is internationally-recognized among the most expert authorities on LNAPL science. His research at the Center of Contaminant Hydrology at Colorado State University has created many technology breakthroughs creating a paradigm shift for LNAPL site management strategies.

Dr. Sale is an Associate Professor and Director of Center for Contaminant Hydrology, Civil and Environmental Engineering. He has authored numerous landmark papers and is the driving force behind patented technologies that have changed the direction of the LNAPL industry. He also contributes to LNAPL projects as a consultant and a regulation policy reviewer.

His research and consulting activities are dedicated to finding solutions for anthropogenic releases of contaminants to subsurface environments and their subsequent transport, fate, and management. Specific areas of interest are pragmatic expectations for Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL) remedies and passive strategies for management of NAPL releases. His collaborations have changed the LNAPL industry along with developments for remediation for both LNAPL and DNAPL.

His inventive mind and collaborative ability has enabled the Center for Contaminant Hydrology to conduct approximately $1.5 million /year in research and support 11 students. Current and recent research sponsors include ExxonMobil, Chevron, Suncor Energy, BP, Shell, CH2M, ARCADIS and the USDoD. He is dedicated to innovative solutions for groundwater contamination and development of groundwater resources.

Dr. Sale has bachelor degrees in Chemistry and Geology from Miami of Ohio (1980), a M.S. degree in Watershed Hydrology from the University of Arizona (1984), and a Ph.D. in Agricultural Engineering from Colorado State University (1998).

Charles J. Newell, Ph.D., P.E.
Dr. Charles Newell is internationally-recognized for his expertise in both LNAPL and DNAPL science. He is Vice President of GSI Environmental Inc. and a member of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, a NGWA Certified Ground Water Professional, and an Adjunct Professor at Rice University.

Dr. Newell has co-authored landmark EPA publications, 12 environmental decision support software systems, numerous technical articles, and two books, including Natural Attenuation of Fuels and Chlorinated Solvents.

His professional expertise includes site characterization, groundwater and surface water quality modeling, risk assessments, natural attenuation, LNAPL/DNAPL problems, bioremediation, non-point source studies, software development, and long-term monitoring projects. His contributions to Research and Development of LNAPL and DNAPL technologies have changed the direction of LNAPL science.

He has served as a Principal or Co-Principal Investigator for numerous environmental research and development projects for the Dept. of Energy, American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Defense and industrial clients.

Dr. Newell is co-developer of the Navy RITZ seminar "Dilute Groundwater Plume Management Current Thinking on Large and Dilute (L&D) Plumes" and has served as Co-PI for several SERDP/ESTCP matrix diffusion projects.

Dr. Newell has been awarded the Hanson Excellence of Presentation Award by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the Outstanding Presentation Award by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the 2001 Wesley W. Horner Award by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the 2008 Outstanding Alumni Award from Rice University; and Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) 2014 Project of the Year as a Co-Principal Investigator.

CSU Publications

Colorado State University
Hydrocarbon Publications and Theses

  • Garg, S., Newell, C. J., Kulkarni, P. R., King, D. C., Adamson, D. T., Irianni Renno, M., Sale, T. C. (2016) Overview of Natural Source Zone Depletion: Processes, Controlling Factors, and Composition Change. Journal of Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation (In review).
  • Campbell, Calista, (2017) Effects of Capping Materials on the Longevity of Degradable Contaminants in Sediments. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Emerson, Eric. (2017) Biotic Control of LANPL Longevity- Laboratory and Field-Scale Studies. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Kiaalhosseini, S., Johnson, R. L., Rogers, R. C., Irianni Renno, M. M., Lyverse, M., Sale, T. C. (2016). Cryogenic Core Collection (C3) from Unconsolidated Subsurface Media. Journal of Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation, 36(4), 41-49.
  • Irianni-Renno, M., Akhbari, D., Olson, M. R., Byrne, A. P., Lefevre, E., Zimbron, J., Lyverse, M., Sale, T. C., De Long, S. K. (2016). Comparison of bacterial and archaeal communities in depth-resolved zones in an LNAPL body. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(7), 3347-3360.
  • Tom Sale, Rick Johnson, Rick Rogers, and Saeed Kiaalhoseinni (2016). Provisional Patent Application for Cryogenic Core Collection. May 2016.
  • Saeed Kiaalhoseinni, Tom Sale, Steve Albers, Jens Blotevogel, and Elliot Grunewald (2015). Provisional patent for NMR Measurement of Frozen Samples. Submitted March 18, 2015.
  • Stockwell, Emily (2015) Continuous NAPL Loss Rates Using Subsurface Temperatures, MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Sale, T. and Emily Stockwell (2015), Device and Method for Subsurface Thermal Flux Measurement, US Patent Pending. Submitted February 16, 2015.
  • Zimbron, J., T. Sale, and M. Lyverse (2014). Gas Flux Measurement Using Traps, Pending U.S. Patent. U.S. Patent 8,714,034.
  • Zimbron, J., T. Sale, M Biondolillo, P. Batten, M. Chalfant and M. Lyverse (2014). Oleophilic Bio-barrier for Controlling NAPL migration Pending U.S. Patent. Submitted to the U.S. Patent Office September 14, 2014 2011.
  • McCoy, K., J. Zimbron, T. Sale, and M. Lyverse (2013). Measurement of Natural Losses of LNAPL Using CO2 Traps, Submitted to the Journal of Groundwater November 2014.
  • Zeman, N. M.Irrianorenno, M. Olson, T. Sale, and S. De Long (2013). Temperature Impacts on Anaerobic Biotransformation of LNAPL and Concurrent Shifts in Microbial Community Structure. Accepted with comments by Journal of Biodegradation November 2013.
  • Skinner, Anna Meryle (2013). LNAPL Longevity as a Function of Remedial Actions: Tools for Evaluating LNAPL Remedies. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Akhbari, Daria (2013). Thermal Aspects of Sustainable Thermally Enhanced LNAPL Attenuation (STELA). MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Hawkins, Alison M. (2013). Processes Controlling the Behavior of LNAPLs at Groundwater Surface Water Interfaces. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Mahler, N., T. Sale and M. Lyverse (2012). A Mass Balance Approach to Resolving LNAPL Stability. Journal of Ground Water, Vol 50, No. 6, pp 861-871.
  • Mahler, N., T. Sale, T. Smith, and M. Lyverse (2012). Use of Single-Well Tracer Dilution Tests to Evaluate LNAPL Flux at Seven Field Sites, Journal of Ground Water, Vol 50, No. 6, pp 851-860.
  • Smith, T., T. Sale, and M. Lyverse (2012). Measurement of LNAPL Flux Using Single-Well Intermittent Mixing Tracer Dilution Test. Journal of Ground Water, Vol 50, No. 6, pp 861-871.
  • Zeman, Natalie Rae (2012). Thermally Enhanced Bioremediation of LNAPL. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • McCoy, Kevin M. (2012). Resolving Natural Losses of LNAPL Using CO2 Traps. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Zimbron, J., T. Sale, and M. Lyverse (2011). Gas Flux Measurement Using Traps, Pending U.S. Patent. Submitted to the U.S. Patent Office August 3, 2011.
  • Sale, T., T. Smith and M. Lyverse (2011). Measurement of Liquid Flow in Porous Media by Tracer Dilution without Continuous Mixing, U.S. Patent 7,861,601 B2, Jan 4, 2011. 7,861,601 B2, 2011.
  • Mahler, Nicholas T. (2010). A Mass Balance Approach to Resolving the Stability of LNAPL Bodies. MS Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Sale, T. G. Taylor, and M. Lyverse (2007). Measurement of Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Flow in Porous Media by Tracer Dilution, U.S. Patent 2007/0113676A1.
  • Sale, T., G. Taylor, G. Iltis, and M. Lyverse (2007). Measurement of LNAPL Flow Using Single-Well Tracer Dilution Techniques. Ground Water, Vol. 45, No.5, September-October, pp. 569-578.
  • Raynal, M., Sale, T., and Pruden, A. (2006) Wetland Treatment of MTBE Contaminated Groundwater at a Local Refinery. World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006: pp. 1-10. doi: 10.1061/40856(200)108.
  • Sale, T. (2003). Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Managing Risk at LNAPL Sites, American Petroleum Institute, Soils and Groundwater Research Bulletin No. 18.
  • Sale, T. (2001). Methods for Determining Inputs to Environmental Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mobility and Recovery Models, American Petroleum Institute Publication No. 4711.
  • Pitts, M.J., Wyatt, K., Sale, T.C., and Piontek, K.R. (1993). "Utilization of Chemical-Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology to Remove Hazardous Oily Waste from Alluvium," SPE/DOE paper no. 25153. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 2-5, pp. 33-44.
  • Simpkin T., T. Sale, B. Kueper, M. Pitts and K. Wyatt (1999). Surfactants and Cosolvents for NAPL Remediation: A Technology Practices Manual, ATDF. Editors: Lowe, D.F., K., Oubre, C.L., Ward, C.H. Lewis Publishers.
  • Sale, T. and D. Applegate (1997). Mobile NAPL Recovery: Conceptual, Field, and Mathematical Considerations. Ground Water, 35(3) pp. 418-426.
  • Sale, T. and D. Applegate (1996). Oil recovery at a former wood-treating facility. Water Environment Research, 68(7), pp. 1116-1122.
  • Admire, J., J. de Albuquerque, J. Cruze, K. Piontek, and T. Sale (1996). Case Study: Natural Attenuation of Dissolved Hydrocarbons at a Former Natural Gas Plant. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Advanced Technologies Series, Health, Safety, and Environmental Issues. SPE 29755, Pages 619-630.
Venue and Accommodations

Seating is Limited in Both Locations.


Discounts valid on Delta Airlines
and applicable DL* Codeshare flights.


June 19-20, 2018
Colorado State University
Lory Student Center and Conference Facility
Fort Collins, Colorado USA

CSU is located in Ft. Collins, CO which is approximately 55 miles north of Denver and 35 miles from Rocky Mountain National Park.

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June 26-27, 2018
Harvard University
Harvard Lecture Hall
26 Oxford Street
Cambridge, MA 02138

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Boston, MA 02134

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